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Coffee-the health effects and benefits of drinking coffee

Health Benefits of Coffee-Overview

Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Coffee’s health benefits are visible on the Planet. In more than 70 countries people cultivate coffee, there are two main countries producing coffee in the world. They are Brazil and Colombia. The climate of Canada does not allow the cultivation of coffee. But there is a lot of processing of imported beans. We know that Canadians drink over 15 billion cups of coffee per year. The average coffee consumer drinks three cups a day. Contrary to popular belief, coffee contains vitamins and minerals as well as antioxidant compounds.

Active ingredients and properties


Bioactive Compounds


Coffee contains more than a dozen bioactive compounds. Most of them are formed during the process of roasting (roasting) the bean. We can find three of them therein great concentration. And they are important from a physiological point of view. These are caffeine, diterpene alcohols, and phenolic compounds known for their antioxidant effects.

Caffeine.

This compound is by far the best characterized so far in coffee. In the United States, they estimate that 75% of the caffeine consumed comes from coffee. Canadian researchers have estimated this quantity at 60%. The rest comes from tea, chocolate, energy drinks, etc.

The caffeine content in coffee varies depending on the type of beans, the roasting method, and the method of brewing it (for more details, see our Caffeine sheet). We know caffeine primarily for its stimulant effects.

In healthy adults, a small amount can increase alertness and concentration. On other hand, however, it can cause unwanted biological effects such as insomnia, headaches, irritability, and nervousness.

According to Health Canada, in adults, caffeine consumed in moderation (three cups of it per day). It does not cause adverse effects, particularly about behavior (anxiety, attention span), cardiovascular health, or cancer.


Diterpene alcohols.

The coffee bean contains a natural and a significant amount of diterpene alcohols, the cafestol and kahweol. These compounds, present in the oils of its beans, are released on contact with hot water. They increase cholesterol levels.

Depending on the method of preparation, it will contain more or fewer diterpenes. For example, boiled coffee contains 1.2 mg to 18 mg of cafestol and kahweol per 100 ml while espresso coffee contains 0.2 mg to 4.5 mg.

Filter it, on the other hand, contains hardly any (from 0 mg to 0.1 mg).


Coffee health benefits-Antioxidants.

This drink contains several antioxidant compounds. Given the frequency of its consumption, it can make an important contribution to the antioxidant capacity of the diet. In this regard, a Norwegian study shows that it is the food item in the diet. It contributes the most to total antioxidant intake in this population.

A study has shown it. The antioxidant capacity of plasma increases significantly following the ingestion of a single cup of filter coffee (200 ml). This suggests that it would probably exert its preventive effect on certain diseases thanks to its antioxidant power.

Among the antioxidant compounds in coffee are phenolic compounds, including some volatile substances produced during roasting. People attribute these volatile substances to the characteristic its smell.

Phenolic compounds.

Coffee contains high amounts of phenolic acids, including caffeic and chlorogenic acids. A 7 oz (approx. 200 ml) cup of coffee provides 70 mg to 350 mg of phenolic acid.

For comparison, blueberries, cherries, plums, apples, and kiwi are the fruits richest in phenolic acids of the same family it. They contain 10 mg to 230 mg per serving of 100 g to 200 g.

Several researchers believe that caffeic and chlorogenic acids are largely responsible for the antioxidant its effect.

Coffee contains appreciable amounts of lignans, phenolic compounds that are very common in plants. Lignans are converted into enterolignans by intestinal bacteria and then enter the bloodstream.

Lignans act as antioxidants. And they believe to be associated, in humans, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers.


Effects and benefits of coffee on health

Discover our coffee recipe with oats and almond milk.

We know most of the data on the link between coffee consumption and reduction in chronic disease coming from epidemiological studies.

According to some researchers, they should interpret these results with caution, as they may involve methodological biases. For example, the way to calculate the amount of coffee and caffeine consumed daily. So it can vary greatly from one study to another. It is various in the size of a cup, the duration of brewing, the type of beans used, etc.

Besides, certain “confounding” factors such as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, often associated with heavy coffee consumption. We can not always evaluate them well.

It should be borne in mind that it is only one of the risk modulators of certain diseases. Despite certain benefits associated with its consumption. So it remains prudent, in a public health context, to recommend moderation.

How much does not coffee effect and benefits on health?

This means, in more concrete terms, consuming three cups of coffee per day or 400 mg to 450 mg of caffeine daily. According to Health Canada, this quantity does not represent a danger to human health.
The majority of the epidemiological studies published to date indicate that it, consumed in large quantities, would reduce the risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes.

A meta-analysis identified data from nine prospective studies grouping together close to 200,000 participants. It shows that consumption of six cups of coffee a day and reduced by 35% the risk of type 2 diabetes, compared to less than two cups a day. Consuming four to six cups reduces the risk by 28%.

Health Benefits of Coffee on Type 2 diabetes

Besides, a recent review of the literature coupled with a meta-analysis showed. They inform us of the risk of type 2 reducing to a maximum of protection at 6 cups of coffee per day.

It is not possible, from the data from this type of study, to suggest a mechanism of action, nor to establish a cause and effect link. However, it has been speculated that the chlorogenic acid present in coffee could interfere with the action of an enzyme whose function is to release glucose into the blood.

Chlorogenic acid may also decrease the absorption of glucose from the intestine by blocking its transport to the membrane of the intestine. As for caffeine, it would not be responsible for the beneficial effect since decaffeinated coffee also lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Coffee’s health benefits on health for Diabetes

They rather divided the clinical studies on the effect produced by its consumption on some indicators of diabetes. This is what the authors of a review article published in a 2006 report.

Thus, some data show that it improves the sensitivity of cells to insulin and glucose metabolism following a meal or a sugary drink. Rather, other data indicate that coffee consumption does not affect fasting glucose or insulin levels and even on markers of insulin sensitivity.

We know most of these studies done over a short period (i.e. one day). Only controlled and randomized clinical studies, carried out over longer periods, will establish the link between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes.

Cardiovascular disease-coffee’s health benefits


The effect and benefits of coffee on health consumption on the risk of cardiovascular disease has been the subject of a large number of studies over the past 40 years, but the subject remains controversial. It is still difficult to establish clearly whether coffee is harmful or beneficial for heart health.

Coffee contains a multitude of chemical compounds whose effects can be the opposite. Studies seem to show that the presence or absence of a protective effect could depend on the amount consumed.

Besides, the method of preparing the coffee (filtered or boiled) would influence the cardiovascular risk 1. The results of a meta-analysis of 14 studies show that boiled coffee, compared to filtered coffee, increases total cholesterol and LDL (“bad” cholesterol) levels.

This increase is more significant in people with already high cholesterol. The boiled coffee contains high amounts of cafestol and kahweol. They think these two compounds to be responsible for the increase in cholesterol in the blood.

The use of filter paper during the preparation of coffee makes it possible to significantly reduce its concentrations since the filter captures the majority of cafestol and kahweol.

How can coffee with antioxidants reduce cardiovascular disease?

Coffee contains antioxidants and other substances. We believe them to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in people who consume moderate filter coffee. At least that is what the authors of a review article published in 2007 report 21. A recent meta-analysis carried out in 2014 once again demonstrated moderate coffee consumption (3 to 5 cups per day). We inversely associated with cardiovascular risk 58. It is mainly the polyphenols in coffee that have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health 1.

Caffeine, meanwhile, would not bring any benefit in this regard. It would even have deleterious effects, according to some researchers.

Caffeine in increasing cardiovascular risk.
Caffeine in increasing cardiovascular risk

A recent study has demonstrated the major role of caffeine in increasing cardiovascular risk. Caffeine is also associated with an increase in blood pressure, a cardiovascular risk factor.

However, the consumption of coffee (which does not contain only caffeine) would not have a negative impact, probably because of the protective effect of its other compounds 23, 24.

In conclusion, it seems increasingly clear that large consumption of unfiltered coffee (more than six cups a day) is bad for the heart. However, moderate consumption of coffee, mainly filter coffee, could lead to some benefits.

This would be due, among other things, to the presence of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols. These would counteract the harmful effects of caffeine and compounds present in coffee oil (cafestol and kahweol) 1.

Health Benefits of Coffee on Cancer


According to epidemiological data, they linked coffee consumption to a reduction in the risk of certain types of cancer, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and gastric cancer.

Data on breast cancer show that, in premenopausal women, drinking four or more cups of coffee per day decreases the risk of developing this type of cancer by 40% 25. In this study, however, they do not demonstrate the same association in postmenopausal women or women consuming less than four cups of coffee per day.

A genetic study published in 2006 shows that women with one of the two genetic mutations that predispose to breast cancer and who consume six or more cups of coffee per day have significantly less risk of developing breast cancer than those who do not consume coffee.

Effect on breast cancer-Health Benefits of Coffee
Effect on breast cancer

On the other hand, a recent meta-analysis examining the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer showed no link except in women with non-hormone-dependent breast cancer where coffee consumption decreased the risk of breast cancer.

Regarding the relationship between coffee and the risk of colorectal cancer, the authors of a meta-analysis 27 mention that the data seem to indicate that drinking coffee decreases this risk. They warn, however, that the lack of consensus between the various epidemiological studies does not allow such a link to be established with certainty.

Finally, a recent meta-analysis published in 2013 showed that coffee consumption was inversely related to the risk of endometrial cancer 60.

Health Benefits of Coffee on Liver disease


Several studies show that coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of liver damage, particularly cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis. According to some authors, this effect is attributable to caffeine. Others associate the protective effect of coffee with its content in phenolic acids, antioxidant compounds that are thought to act in concert with caffeine.

A large prospective study, carried out on a cohort of more than 125,000 subjects, shows that the risk of suffering from alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis is inversely linked to coffee consumption.

Heavy coffee drinkers (four cups and more per day) would be more protected than light drinkers (three cups and less per day).

In this study, coffee consumption was also linked to a lower prevalence of elevated liver enzymes (markers of liver damage) in the blood. In a previous study, the same authors had shown a reduced risk of mortality from hepatic cirrhosis in coffee drinkers. The risk was reduced by 22% per cup of coffee consumed per day.

Data from a US national survey, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, has linked high coffee consumption (more than two cups per day) to a lower risk of chronic liver disease in those at risk.

Liver problems.

Finally, the results of a meta-analysis of nine studies published between 2002 and 2007 show that coffee consumption (an increase of two cups per day) is associated with a 43% reduction in the risk of liver cancer.

It is important to mention that these are epidemiological studies and that no mechanism of action could be discovered in these studies, which limits the interpretation of the results.

Besides, even if the coffee was protective on the liver, the best approach to reduce the risk of alcohol-type liver cirrhosis is to reduce alcohol consumption.

Gallstones


Coffee acts on several processes involved in the formation of lithiasis or gallstones (commonly called “stones”). Epidemiological data show that coffee and caffeine have protective effects against the formation of gallstones, but these results are not unanimous in the scientific community.

While some authors reported that high consumption of coffee reduces the risk of gallstones, others rather observe an increased risk with high consumption.

A prospective study carried out on a cohort of nearly 81,000 women followed for 20 years demonstrated that the consumption of four or more cups of coffee per day is associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder). biliary).

In this study, a decreased risk of cholecystectomy was also observed with the consumption of caffeine, but not with the consumption of decaffeinated coffee.

Caffeine risk

A prospective study carried out in more than 46,000 men shows a significant decrease in the risk of gallstones in those who consume four or more cups of coffee per day.

This protective role of coffee, however, has not been observed in all studies. Thus, research carried out in Japanese men shows approximately twice the prevalence of gallbladder disorders in heavy users of coffee (more than five cups per day) or caffeine (more than 300 mg per day), compared to those who consume less than 100 mg per day 38.

Data from a study in the United States from 1988 to 1994 in nearly 14,000 subjects show that the prevalence of gallbladder disorders is not associated with coffee consumption, as much in humans than women 39.

Several factors, both genetic and environmental, can be associated with the formation of gallstones. The role of coffee or caffeine should be further analyzed to better assess its importance in the incidence of this health problem.

Parkinson’s disease


Most large epidemiological studies show that coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease, particularly in humans 13. The results of a major meta-analysis point in the same direction.

Recently, researchers analyzed data from approximately 6,700 subjects who participated in a prospective study and whose follow-up spanned 22 years.

They found that consuming ten or more cups of coffee per day reduced the risk of Parkinson’s disease by 74%. The decrease was 38% among people who consumed four to nine cups of coffee per day, compared to those who did not. This association was even stronger in obese people.

A recent review of the literature carried out in 2013 showed that coffee consumption reduced the risk of Parkinson’s disease. This effect was greatest at 3 cups per day.

It appears that both genetic and environmental factors are associated with the onset of Parkinson’s disease. Oxidative stress could be one of the mechanisms involved in the evolution of the disease. Coffee, thanks to its antioxidant content, would provide some protection.

Gout


Consumption of regular coffee and decaffeinated coffee is thought to be associated with a decrease in the incidence of gout. Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis in adult men.

It is characterized by increased concentrations of uric acid in the blood and manifests itself in acute inflammatory attacks, often in the big toe. A recent prospective study, conducted over 12 years in more than 45,000 North American men, shows that increasing coffee consumption reduces the risk of gout.

Thus, people who consume four to five cups of coffee per day and those who consume more than six cups respectively reduce their risk of suffering from gout by 40% and 59%, compared to those who do not.

A decreased risk was also observed with decaffeinated coffee, but not with caffeine. This suggests that a substance other than caffeine (perhaps one or more antioxidant compounds) may play a role in the observed effect.

A second prospective study, carried out using data from 14,000 participants representative of the adult American population, shows that the consumption of coffee and decaffeinated coffee, but not caffeine, is associated with a significant decrease in uric acid concentration. in the blood.
These results are very interesting, but it should be kept in mind that these are epidemiological studies and that several important variables, known to influence the onset of gout, could not be controlled. Only randomized and well-controlled clinical studies will be able to determine whether coffee reduces the risk of gout.

Sports performance.

We have shown caffeine to have beneficial effects on athletic performance, in particular by increasing lipolysis and preserving glycogen reserves during exercise.

So We think caffeine having possible effects on adrenaline, muscle contraction, and the central nervous system by reducing the feeling of fatigue and increasing endurance.

Caffeine would be effective during short efforts of very high intensity or endurance. It is the impact that is felt within an hour of ingestion.

It is very important to check your tolerance before consuming it because each person can react differently. Indeed, some side effects such as irritability, tremors, gastrointestinal discomfort can occur in people who do not have a good tolerance to caffeine.

An average intake of 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight would be the optimal dose to achieve the desired effects.

Other properties


Is coffee an antioxidant?

Data not available

Does coffee have a high glycemic load?

There is no glycemic load for coffee. Brewed coffee does not contain carbohydrates.

Most important nutrients

Magnesium. Espresso coffee is an excellent source of magnesium for women and a good source for men (men have more magnesium requirements than women).

We know Magnesium involved in bone development, protein building, enzymatic actions, muscle contraction, dental health, and the functioning of the immune system. It also plays a role in energy metabolism and the transmission of nerve impulses.

Vitamin B3.

Espresso coffee is an excellent source of vitamin B3. We also called niacin, vitamin B3 involving in many metabolic reactions and particularly contributes to the production of energy from the carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and alcohol that we ingest. It also helps in the process of DNA formation, allowing normal growth and development

Vitamin B2.

Brewed coffee and espresso coffee are good sources of vitamin B2 for women, and sources for men (men have more vitamin B2 requirements than women). We know Vitamin B2 as riboflavin. Like vitamin B1, it plays a role in the energy metabolism of all cells. Besides, it contributes to the growth and repair of tissues, the production of hormones, and the formation of red blood cells.

Source Copper.

Espresso coffee is a source of copper. As a component of several enzymes, copper is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin and collagen (a protein used for the structure and repair of tissues). Several copper-containing enzymes also help in the body’s defense against free radicals.

Source Pantothenic acid.

Brewed coffee is a source of pantothenic acid. Also known as vitamin B5, pantothenic acid is part of a key coenzyme that allows the body to adequately utilize energy from the foods we eat. It is also involved in several stages of the manufacture of steroid hormones, neurotransmitters, and hemoglobin.

What is a “serving” of coffee worth?

Volume / weight

Brewed coffee, 250 ml / 250 g

Espresso coffee, restaurant preparation, 100 ml / 101 g

Regular soluble coffee 250 ml / 253 g

Calories

3.0

2.0

5.0

Protein

0.3 g

0.1 g

0.3 g

Carbohydrates

0.0 g

0.9 g

Lipids

Source: Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File 2007.

The fiber in coffee?


Coffee beans are rich in dietary fiber. A certain amount would end up in the brewed coffee. At least, that’s what a group of Spanish researchers reports which evaluated the soluble fiber content of different coffees.

Most Nutrition Facts tables indicate that coffee is fiber-free. Rather, the data from this study shows them. The espresso, filter coffee, and soluble coffee contain 0.65 g, 0.47 g, and 0.75 g of soluble fiber per 100 ml, respectively.

It should be noted that the assay method used in the study (enzymatic method followed by dialysis). It is not the common method used to assay fiber in food.

According to this study, coffee is, therefore, one of the few drinks to contain dietary fiber. It is consumed frequently and in relatively large quantities (two to three cups per day), coffee. They could thus contribute to the daily intake of fiber.

Coffee contains soluble fiber 56. Its content varying between 1.5 to 2.3 g per cup (250 ml). Soluble fiber can contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease by notably reducing the absorption of bile acids. They can also help control type 2 diabetes, among other things by slowing down the digestion of glucose from food.

Coffees for all tastes

In North America, the most consumed type of coffee remains regular or “traditional” brewed it. However, consumption habits are changing rapidly, and more and more amateurs are discovering new types of so-called “specialized” coffee. Here are a few examples.

Espresso.
Espresso

Coffee prepared using a very high-pressure percolation process from a very roasted fine grind. A characteristic of the successful espresso is the formation of an opaque, hazelnut-colored cream. So it adheres to the walls of the cup.


Cappuccino.

Then we compose it of a third of espresso, a third of heated milk, and a third of milk foam. Thus it is sometimes sprinkled with cocoa or cinnamon.


Coffee with milk.

So we add it an equal portion of hot milk and a little frothed milk. It is usually served in a large mug or bowl. it is made from long or double espresso, sometimes with strong filter coffee.


Latte coffee Health Benefits of Coffee.
Latte coffee

Café Latte is the Italian variation of café au lait. It is made the same way as a latte, but using ¼ espresso and ¾ hot milk. The basic building block of latte is always an espresso.


Espresso Macchiato Health Benefits of Coffee.

It’s an espresso with a hint of milk froth on top.


Latté Macchiato.

Coffee prepared by pouring hot milk followed by frothed milk into a tall, narrow and transparent glass. The espresso is then poured gently so that it sits between the milk and the foam. The ingredients must not mix. This we can serve it sprinkled with cocoa, cinnamon, or other spices.


Mocha coffee.

Drink prepared from a mixture of espresso, cocoa powder or chocolate syrup, and foamy hot milk. To serve, garnish with whipped cream and chocolate flakes.


What about the nutritional value of these coffees?

Regular filter coffee, with no added sugar, milk, or cream, provides just three calories per cup and zero carbs. This is not the case with certain specialty coffees, whose calorie and sugar content varies according to the ingredients. They compose them.

Thus, a mocha coffee will contain up to 140 calories and 20 g of carbohydrates per cup. Because it prepared with chocolate syrup. One cup of latte and one cup of latte, made with 2% milk, will contain 67 and 97 calories respectively, as well as 7 g and 9 g of carbohydrates (sugars from milk). These types of coffees provide at least half a serving of dairy products.

Precautions


Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Symptomatic Hiatus Hernia
These esophageal disorders are characterized by burning sensations in the chest (retrosternal burns). And acid regurgitation caused by the acid content of the stomach rising into the mouth. These symptoms usually appear after a meal.

Certain foods can play a role in improving the feeling of well-being. And they also improve the quality of life of people with these problems. Among other things, these people are advised to avoid the consumption of foods rich in methylxanthines. They are coffee, chocolate, tea, and cola.

These foods decrease the resting tension of the lower esophageal sphincter. Thus they contribute to the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus.

Besides, to prevent irritation of the esophageal lining, it is recommended to avoid consuming regular coffee. And it decaffeinated it which can cause epigastric burns.


Health Benefits of Coffee on Peptic ulcer

A peptic ulcer is an open lesion of the lining of the stomach. This lesion is often accompanied by inflammation and destruction of this mucous membrane. People with peptic ulcer disease should drink coffee in moderation since it contains methylxanthines.

These can cause severe pain, especially when coffee is consumed on an empty stomach or just before bedtime. Finally, it seems reasonable to recommend consuming in moderation foods that, at the very least experimentally, increase gastric acidity.

This is the case for foods that contain methylxanthines (coffee, tea, chocolate, cocoa, cola) and decaffeinated drinks.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome


Caffeine can exacerbate the symptoms of people with irritable bowel syndrome. It is prudent to check the effects and limit consumption, if necessary.


Iron absorption

The chlorogenic acid, the major phenolic compound coffee, is a potent inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of non-heme iron. That is to say, the iron present in the plant products.

The results of an intervention study have carried out in healthy men. So they show the number of phenolic compounds in one cup of soluble (instant) coffee. It decreases iron absorption by 60% to 90%.

According to a synthesis of studies identifying different research in humans, the consumption of 150 ml to 250 ml of coffee. They have taken during a meal would decrease iron absorption by 24% to 73%.

A widely cited study, the Framingham Heart Study, shows them. So in the elderly, every cup of coffee consumed per week. It was associated with a 1% decrease in iron stores in the blood.


Coffee and caffeine: groups at risk


Coffee and tea are the main sources of caffeine in adults. There is some evidence that children, women of childbearing age, pregnant and breastfeeding women may be more vulnerable to the effects of caffeine.

This, consumed in large quantities, would possibly have undesirable effects, among other things on certain factors of reproduction and development.

Caffeine on abortion

Caffeine consumption of more than 300 mg per day has been associated with decreased fertility in a few studies. Also, there may be a link between high caffeine consumption and the risk of spontaneous abortion. However, there is no consensus on this subject in the scientific literature.

The data from epidemiological studies are conflicting, but everything suggests that moderate caffeine consumption is generally not harmful.

On child bearing women

However, as a precautionary measure, Health Canada recommends it. Women of childbearing age and pregnant women limit their caffeine intake to a maximum of 300 mg per day. Or the equivalent of approximately two 8 oz (250 ml) cups. ) regular coffee. This recommendation also applies to breastfeeding women. So caffeine can pass into breast milk, which can cause irritability in the baby and disrupt sleep.

Recommendation on children

As for children, Health Canada recommends not to exceed 45 mg of caffeine per day for ages 4 to 6, 62.5 mg per day for ages 7 to 9, and 85 mg per day for ages 10 to 12 years. These recommendations were formulated in response to concerns about the possible effects of caffeine on the development of the nervous system.

It is based on the results of clinical studies controlled. So it seems that caffeine consumption of less than 3 mg/kg of body weight does not harm the child’s behavior (hyperactivity, attention deficit). In Canada, an intake of 2.5 mg/kg body weight was used as a benchmark for calculating the maximum recommended intake.

To read also- Coffee and Health


Coffee over time


” Café ” first appeared in the French language in 1610. It derives from the Italian caffè, which borrowed it from the Arabic Mahwah, pronounced in the Turkish kahvé. So they attribute various meanings to this word, including “that which keeps awake” and “wine”, a drink prohibited in Islam. So coffee replaced. In France, we colloquially use the form out. It derived from the Arabic for Algeria and taken over by the military in the XIX century.

In several languages, “coffee” designates both the drink and the establishment where people serve it. Which testifies to the immense importance it has acquired in social life. “ Cafeteria ”, derived from English, refers to the same reality.

Where does it come in Arab?

We usually agree that Coffea arabica comes from Abyssinia on the edge of the Red Sea (present-day Ethiopia). We found traces of his presence dating from the VII century.

The best-known legend has it. A shepherd discovered the stimulating properties of coffee after seeing it. His goats were more dashing when they ate the small wild berries.

Domesticated in Yemen, coffee spread throughout the Arab world. Thanks to the Sufis. They believe it. They appreciate its exciting effects. The drink allowed them to stay awake during their long hours of practice. We believe that it was moreover a Sufi sheik who first thought of roasting the grains before boiling them. Until then, we used the green bean to make coffee.

When did coffee start as a drink?

Because of the ban on alcohol, coffee will become the drink of choice for Arabs. For more than two centuries, they will keep the exclusivity of its culture and its trade, boiling or drying in the sun the grains to kill the germ. Before the XVI century, no coffee only grew outside that region of the globe.

Then, reckless travelers will succeed in bringing out of Yemen a few fertile grains to sow them in foreign soil. Thus they will introduce in Europe in the XVI century and America in the early XVII century.

Coffee history

Along with tea, chocolate, and mate, coffee is one of the most consumed drinks in the world. And just like them, the historian links its history to empires, wars, and revolutions. As early as 1511, the authorities of Mecca began to burn bags of coffee in the streets of the city, in protest against the popularity of cafes in large cities such as Cairo, Istanbul, Damascus, and Algiers, places, according to them, of debauchery and political intrigue.

Coffee in Europe

In 1600, Italian priests tried to have it banned by Pope Clement VIII because it was the drink of the infidels. However, after taking a cup of it, the Pope decreed that he loved her. To counter the objections of the priests, he undertook to administer the sacrament of baptism in the café to legalize it …

In London in 1674 women signed a petition to ban coffee. They argued it. Thus he kept their husbands away, who preferred to hang out in establishments. where they serve him rather than stay at home.

They also argued that it lessened their virile ardor. A year later, King Charles II wanted to close the cafes on the pretext. So these establishments were places where the revolution was fomented. But the public reaction was such that he had to quickly abandon his project.

Coffee in Germany

In Germany, they wanted to ban women, claiming that it made them sterile, which prompted Johann Sebastian Bach to write a cantata mocking the German authorities. King Frederick the Great wanted to ban it in 1775 because it affected the trade in beer produced in the country in Prussia.

So it replaced tea after the Boston Tea Party event. They overwhelmed the excessive taxes imposed on tea by the English in the United States, . The Bostonians threw into the water the cargoes of tea from the English ships anchored in the Harbor.

Two species are cultivated on a large scale, namely Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (often called Coffea robusta, because it is the most productive variety of this species).

The beans of C. arabica have a more pronounced and richer flavor, with lower caffeine content. But this species is less productive and less resistant to climatic variations as well as to insects and diseases. Despite this, 75% of world production is provided by C. arabica.

Some people mainly use the beans of C. canephora for the production of lower quality coffee, especially for soluble coffee. But this species provides very good Robusta. We need a certain proportion in espresso coffee because it is the Robusta that gives this coffee its crema, this golden foam that covers it and which is a sign of quality.

Coffee in Sultanate


Few today know this way of doing things, which consists of infusing the shells surrounding the coffee beans. It was in use in Turkey where the sultanas would have introduced the fashion.

It appears in various old works, including the Dictionnaire de Trévoux (1704), the Encyclopédie de Diderot et d’Alembert (1758), and the Grand Dictionnaire de cuisine (1873) by Alexandre Dumas père. Unlike grains, hulls are said to have calming effects, but to our knowledge, there are no studies on these effects. A few coffee producers occasionally sell it.

Coffee in South America

Although people grow coffee in more than 100 countries,80% of global production is provided by 13 countries. They are namely Brazil – the world’s largest producer – Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, India, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Uganda, Côte d’Ivoire, Costa Rica, Vietnam, El Salvador, and Kenya.

The quality of the coffee varies depending on the species, but also on the soil, altitude, climate, and processing. The best coffees would be those that come from coffee trees grown at an altitude of over 1000 m in volcanic soil. So they have select many cultivars over the centuries.

Depending on the duration of roasting, the coffee beans will lose their green color to a blonde, brown, or black shade. Also, depending on the coffee preparation method, we will use a more or less fine grind: ultra-fine for Turkish coffee, very fine for espresso, fine for the manual filter its maker, a little less fine for the coffee maker. with electric filter, and medium-fine or coarse for the percolator.

As with wine and tea, there are great vintages linked to specific terroirs. The best known is Blue Mountain (Jamaica), Kona (Hawaii), Moka (Ethiopia), and Java (Java Island).

Decaffeinated coffee

About 10% of world production is decaffeinated. In Canada, the maximum caffeine content must be 0.1% for roasted coffee and 0.3% for soluble it. There are two main processes for decaffeinating its beans. The mechanical process uses water, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), or coffee oil to remove the caffeine.

This would retain the aroma and flavor of the bean and produce higher quality decaffeinated coffee. We can also extract caffeine using solvents, such as ethyl acetate or methylene chloride. These chemical methods are, however, less and less used. We use the type of process. Then we package it.

Coffee variation

Researchers currently focused on the development of coffee varieties containing little caffeine. We can produce these varieties traditionally, by natural selection and crossbreeding, or by genetic modification.

We would thus avoid all the steps necessary for the extraction of caffeine. And we would obtain a superior quality “decaf”, whose aroma and flavor would be better preserved.

Currently, researchers have successfully produced plants in the laboratory that contain 50% to 94% less caffeine. In 2004, researchers discovered this tree in Ethiopia with virtually zero caffeine content (less than soluble decaffeinated coffee).

This discovery should lead to the selection of new cultivars producing this drink that will not require any decaffeinate.

Culinary uses


To access other recipes, you can go to the CuisineAZ.com cooking recipes site, which offers the following recipes, among others: coffee cake, eclair, ice cream

Choose well


Depending on the length of roasting, the coffee will be smooth, velvety, or full-bodied. Light roasting results in a reddish-brown bean with a mild flavor. A medium roast produces a darker bean with a stronger flavor (velvety).

Finally, a longer roast gives a much darker grain, with a full-bodied flavor reminiscent of charcoal and caramel. In Europe, one or two other categories can be added. The degree of roasting is a matter of taste. It does not change the caffeine content of the drink prepared. Nor its strength depends on the ratio between the amount of water and coffee.

Culinary preparations
In drink

To brew a good cup of coffee, you can use about 2 tbsp. tablespoon for 180 ml of water. You can replace cow’s milk in it with soy milk. Some people hate it, but others are fine with it. The honey and maple syrup may well replace sugar, but the coffee flavor will be somewhat modified.


Flavored coffees.

There are dozens of pre-flavored coffees, but foodies argue that it’s best to flavor your coffee yourself. You can, for example, add almond or vanilla extract to freshly brewed it. First, pour in the water. Then you can also add a vanilla pod, cardamom pods, cloves, fennel, or anise seeds to the ground it. Or, sprinkle hot coffee with cinnamon or ground nutmeg.


Iced coffee health benefits.

Flavor freshly brewed coffee with a few drops of vanilla or almond extract. Then mix in equal parts with milk and pour into a glass filled with ice cubes.


Mocha coffee.

Mix hot chocolate and hot it in equal parts. Add milk or cream, cocoa powder, and ground cinnamon. To the devil: add a little hot pepper.


Ice coffee.

Allow strong this drink to cool, then add ice and, to taste, sugar, milk, or cream. Or you blend half a cup of cold or room temperature coffee with a piece of banana, yogurt. Then you can add one or two ice cubes. And you can desire, a spoonful of wheat germ.

Kopi luck


The people of Indonesia produce a very special coffee. It comes from beans eaten by a small animal, the civet. After eating the healthiest and most ripe beans, the civet sheds the partially digested and fermented grains in its feces. Harvested and cleaned by the producers, they take, it seems, a particular flavor, much appreciated by Indonesians.

Is this an urban legend?

One thing is certain, this coffee sells for a small fortune.

Add a few spoonfuls of ground coffee to a Thai sauce or marinade; marinate pieces of chicken breast for a few hours or overnight. Drain the chicken and cook on the grill. Heat the marinade and pour it over the chicken.
Add a few spoonfuls of finely ground it to a spaghetti sauce. Or stir a cup of drink into a meat and tomato sauce.
Roll whole fish or fillets in coarsely ground coffee before grilling.

People make the same with steaks or chops of lamb, veal, beef, etc. Or mix one part coarsely ground coffee, one part chopped walnuts, and one part breadcrumbs. Or, coat chicken breasts with a mixture of the ground it and spices (cardamom seeds, coriander, cumin …), and bake.
To deglaze a pan in which meat has been cooked, replace the vinegar or wine with this drink.
Add about a cup of coffee to the pot-au-feu or boiled water before cooking. Or add it to the preparation of chili con carne or sin Carne.
Replace some or all of the water or milk with it in the preparation of cakes, cookies, muffins, etc. We can use it in the preparation of countless desserts: mousses, creams, pastry creams, ice creams, or sorbets. It is an essential part of the famous tiramisu.
To freshen your breath, bite into a coffee bean or two.


Conservation


Store it in an airtight container, away from strong odors, as it absorbs them easily. Ground or in beans, We store it in the freezer.

Ground.

On contact with air, ground coffee oxidizes within a few days. Therefore, they recommend it to keep in the refrigerator only the amount. You will consume in five or seven days. However, vacuum-packed it will keep much longer. Check the expiration date.

Whole roasted beans. About four weeks at room temperature.

Green grains. A few years.

Organic gardening


For fun, you can grow a potted coffee tree. So you bring indoors in the fall, but the plant is unlikely to produce fruit. Use green beans for seedlings, roasted beans being sterile.

Ecology and environment
Organic, fair, and profitable

Recycle coffee

Coffee grounds (residue after brewing) are an exceptional resource. People largely underutilize. The coffee cultivators generate thousands of tons every year across the planet. People can compost or applied it as a mulch in the garden. We are also studying its potential in the fight against certain undesirable, in particular slugs.

Finally, a Canadian engineer has developed the Java log, a log for those who have a home. They distribute this log throughout North America and can recycle more than 42 million kilos of coffee grounds per year.

So they affix the “certified fair trade” logo to the packaging guarantees. We have produced it. And we market it in compliance with certain standards relating to the quality of it. The working conditions of the farmers, and respect for the environment.

The NGO Agronomists and Veterinarians Without Borders published in January 2007. A study on the effect of fair trade on coffee producers is in southern Ecuador.

Organic coffee

It reveals that certified fair trade and organic coffee producers have been more successful than others. But it is time in weathering the international price crisis. So the industry experienced from 2000 to 2003. While many of the other producers had to abandon their land, temporarily or definitively. Besides, they were able to stay on their land thanks to an adequate income.

Besides, the families enrolled in the program can adequately pay for the temporary workers. Otherwise, they have to go and offer their services in banana plantations or shrimp farms.

Fairtrade, therefore, makes it possible to stop temporary migration and maintain peasant agriculture. The author of the report concludes: “In connection with the organic certification process, associations. It plays a driving role in the sustainable management of natural resources”.

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